Nature Chronicles
In Russian nature reserves there is a special system for monitoring natural processes which is called "Nature Chronicles". It is a scientific program number one for all the nature reserves of Russia.

Generally, it is a scientific report, which comprises all information on ecosystems health and their components in the nature reserve and in the surrounding area in a particular year.

Preparation of the Nature Chronicles is a part of the state target of the nature reserve. The Nature Chronicles is then sent in the form of a report to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation.
In Russian nature reserves there is a special system for monitoring natural processes which is called "Nature Chronicles". It is a scientific program number one for all the nature reserves of Russia.

Generally, it is a scientific report, which comprises all information on ecosystems health and their components in the nature reserve and in the surrounding area in a particular year.

Preparation of the Nature Chronicles is a part of the state target of the nature reserve. The Nature Chronicles is then sent in the form of a report to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation.
How and why was the Nature Chronicles established?
At the beginning of the twentieth century the principled approach to scientific research in Russian nature reserves was formulated by Professor Kozhevnikov G.A. who was the pioneer of the Russian reserve management and studies and the first chairman of the All-Russian Society of Nature Conservation. In his research paper, dated to 1911, he highlights 'scientific necessity of monitoring completely intact nature; nature which is not affected by human activity'. He also emphasizes that 'it is only in those circumstances that we can find out the biological balance, which reigns in nature'. Later on, Pr. Kozhevnikov G.A. outlines the complete program of scientific research in nature reserves ("How to manage scientific work in nature reserves", 1928), which ultimate goal is to 'study laws of organic evolution'. Therefore, it takes very much time to study gradual changes of the flora and fauna living organisms in connection with environmental changes. That is, it is initially assumed that nature reserves cannot rely on considerate results delivered rapidly, as it happens in field studies, especially in few explored areas (Nature Chronicles in nature reserves…, 1985).

Flora and fauna inventory as well as mapping became the first stages of the research. From then on the ideas set by Pr. Kozhevnikov and other nature reserve management founders (Sukachev V. N, Pachoskiy I., Dokuchaev V.V., Borodin I.P., Kashkarov D.N., Formozov A.N., etc.) formed the basis of the Nature Chronicles program in all the nature reserves of Russia.

The main focus of the Nature Chronicles is directly connected with the tasks, solved by Pasvik Nature Reserve, namely:

  • integrated monitoring of the northern ecosystems,
  • conservation and study of wetlands and waterfowl fauna,
  • study of pine forests health in the northern limit of distribution area in Europe.

Scientific Department staff and resource persons participate together in the preparation of the Nature Chronicles. Inspectors of the Conservation Department help with data collection as well.
Nature Chronicles structure
Every Nature Chronicles includes information on the following topics:

  • Territory;
  • Sampling and discount areas, fixed and temporary routes;
  • Landscape and soil;
  • Water;
  • Calendar of nature;
  • Flora and vegetation;
  • Fauna and wildlife;
  • Reservation conditions and anthropogenic factors impact;
  • Scientific research.

Pasvik Nature Reserve also includes information on international activity, environmental education work and state of the cultural heritage sites in Nature Chronicles.
History of the Nature Chronicles development in Pasvik Nature Reserve
Nature Chronicles has been published in Pasvik Nature Reserve since its foundation. We became the first nature reserve in Russia which started to do this — the first book came out in 1997. Overall, 15 books have been published since then. Nature Chronicles is prepared in digital form nowadays.

All of the Nature Chronicles of Pasvik Nature Reserve are available at link.
Where can one use the data from Nature Chronicles?
The data can be used in the following spheres:

  • preparation of scientific and nonfiction articles by staff members of the nature reserve;

  • drafting of recommendations for environmental education and nature protection operations;

  • preparation and conducting of the Reserve and Visitor Center tours, lectures and classes on environmental education;

  • maintaining of social media pages;

  • processing of database and GIS of the nature reserve;

  • scientific concept elaboration of the exhibit in the Visitor Center;

  • assessment of the state of the region's natural complexes, including collaborating with large industrial companies, namely AO 'Kolskaya GMK', PAO 'Norilskiy Nikel';

  • preparation of annual environmental reports in Murmansk region;

  • updating of the Red Lists of Murmansk region and the region's rare and endangered species monitoring;

  • preparation of reviews and inquiries about state of the reserve's nature and its surrounding area within the framework of Russian-Norwegian as well as Russian-Finnish cooperation, including in the area of Intergovernmental Joint commissions for environmental protection, within the framework of the Barents Council of the Euro-Arctic Region, along the Green Belt of Fennoscandia.

The outcomes of the research at the Pasvik territory are annually reported to the Governing Board of the Pasvik-Inari Trilateral Park and form the basis for the development of the Action Plan for every ten years.

Website of the Pasvik-Inari Trilateral Park
http://www.pasvik-inari.net/,
https://prosjekt.fylkesmannen.no/Pasvik-Inari/

Action Plan for 2019−2028
Action Plan for 2008−2018
Monitoring methodology

There is a monitoring network or a special network of sampling and discount areas and routes for conducting research in Pasvik Nature Reserve.

We are gathering the information for Nature Chronicles:

  • at the same stations;
  • on the same methodology;
  • continuously;
  • for many years.

The nature reserve area is an open-air scientific laboratory; it is indelibly eliminated from economic use and serves for conducting research in conditions of the Far North on the border between northern taiga and forest tundra in the valley of Pasvik River.

When collecting data at the same stations and on the same methodology during continuous long time, we have an opportunity to gather comparable, unified material about the state of the following objects:

  • nature complexes: forests, wetlands, mountain tundra, meadows, Pasvik river waters and lakes;

  • and their components: fish, birds, mammals, vascular plants, lichen and other objects.

This allows us to monitor changes in flora and fauna, composition and structure of individual species populations and objects of groups for the long term.
When collecting data at the same stations and on the same methodology during continuous long time, we have an opportunity to gather comparable, unified material about the state of the following objects:


  • nature complexes: forests, wetlands, mountain tundra, meadows, Pasvik river waters and lakes;
  • and their components: fish, birds, mammals, vascular plants, lichen and other objects.
This allows us to monitor changes in flora and fauna, composition and structure of individual species populations and objects of groups for the long term.
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